British Anthropological histories of Shamli & Thanabhawan

At length, on June 21, the 4th Irregulars rose in revolt and murdered their commanding officer as well as another European, after which they marched off to Shamli. Five days later, a party of the 3rd Cavalry arrived at the town; and on July 1 Mr. R. M. Edwards came in from Saharanpur with a body of Gurkhas, and took charge of the administration. Vigorous measures were at once adopted to repress crime and collect revenue, the good effects of which became quickly apparent. The western parganas, however, remained in open revolt; and the rebels of Thana Bhawan attacked Shamli, where they massacred 113 persons in cold blood. Reinforcements shortly after arrived from Meerut; and Thana Bhawan, being evacuated by the rebels, had its walls and gates razed to the ground. After this occurrence no notable event took place.

 

Thana Bhawan.—Town in the Kairana tahsil of Muzaffarnagar District, United Provinces, situated in 290 35' N. and 770 25' E., 18 miles north-west of Muzaffarnagar town on an unmetalled road. Population (1901), 8,861. In the Ain-i-Akbari the pargana is called Thana Bhim ; but the present name is said to be derived from an old temple of Bhawani, which is still much resorted to. The town was a centre of disaffection in 1857, when the inhabitants, headed by their Kazi, Mahbub All Khan, and his nephew, Inayat Ali, broke into open rebellion. Among other daring feats, they captured the tahsili, then at Shamli, and massacred the 113 men who defended it. Thana Bhawan was soon after taken by the Magistrate, with some Sikh and Gurkha levies, after a fight of seven hours. The walls and gates were levelled to the ground and no further disturbances took place. The town decayed after the Mutiny, but the population has increased during the last thirty years. It contains a primary school, and some seventeenth century mosques and tombs. It is administered under Act XX of 1856, the income from house tax being about Rs. 2,500.

 

Shamli.—Town in the Kairana tahsil of Muzaffarnagar District, United Provinces, situated in 290 27' N. and 770 18' E., on the metalled road from Muzaffarnagar town to Kairana. Population (1901), 7,478. It was originally known as Muhammadpur Zanardar, and formed part of the grant made to Mukarrab Khan, physician to Jahangir and Shah Jahan. The town was built later by a follower of Mukarrab Khan's called Shyam. In 1794 it was the residence of a Maratha commandant, who was suspected of intriguing with the Sikhs. Lakwa Dada, the Maratha governor, sent George Thomas against the town. Thomas stormed it, and killed the commandant and his principal adherents. In 1804 Colonel Burn was surrounded near this place by an overwhelming force of Marathas, who were joined by the inhabitants, but he was relieved by the opportune advance of Lord Lake. During the Mutiny the tahsildar of Shamli gallantly held the town and kept communications open for several months, but was defeated and slain by the Shaikhzadas of Thana Bhawan in September, 1857. The head-quarters of the tahsil and munsifi have been removed to Kairana, owing to a terrible epidemic of fever. The place was once a municipality, but decayed, and is now administered under Act XX of 1856, the income being about Rs. 2,500. Four schools are maintained.

 

Shamli was originally a portion of Kairana We learn from the collection of letters of Nand Ram Mukhlis that a village in Kairana called Mahomedpur Zunardar was included in the Jagir bestowed by Jehangir upon Hakim Mukarrab Khan A Chela of the Nawwab's Shaman built a ganj or market in the village and after otherwise improving it called it after his own name Shamli The Jagir remained in the family of Mukarrab Khan till it was resumed by Bahadur Shah who also formed Shamli with a few other villages into a separate Tappa which in course of time has acquired the title of a Parganah